SERIOUS: Both films show the murders of many people. 15. There was no legitimate government to request intervention. Bridges to Reading 31. How accurately does the movie "Hotel Rwanda" portray the Rwandan Genocide in 1994 from the perspective of the Tutsi, Hutu and/or the UN? These films can also promote discussions of the potential for peacekeeping, as well as the responsibilities of individuals and the media in times of crisis. They believed that the high-pitched screams they were hearing were wind gusts, that the packs of dogs at the roadside were feeding on animal remains and not dismembered corpses, that the smells enveloping them emanated from spoiled food and not decomposing bodies. The international tribunal focuses the world’s attention on the problem of genocide. Should General Dallaire have ignored the orders from the civilian leaders at the U.N. and gone after the weapons caches or attacked the genocidaires? “… [I]f you looked, you could see the evidence [of rape, torture and mutilation] even in the whitened skeletons. However, it is also true that there are conditions and forces which lead people to abandon their morality and embrace evil. At that point, the RPF had not yet reached the capital Kigali and Dallaire had to cross a river to get to Kagame’s headquarters. Dallaire left Rwanda shortly after the RPF victory. 5. Scenes of documented atrocities are recreated in the movie, including: the murder of young girls at a Catholic school, Hutu and Tutsi alike, when the Hutu girls refused to give up their Tutsi classmates; the killing of moderate Hutu Prime Minister Agathe Uwilingiyimana; and the repatriation of mostly white foreign nationals by French and Belgian troops, leaving a group of Tutsis to their fate at the hands of waiting genocidaires. The Rwandan government tried to use gacaca to dispose of the cases of low level genocidaires. For more, see HUMANITARIAN INTERVENTION IN. The Peace Accords are not to blame for the genocide. As in Nazi Germany, the mass media was used by the extremists to help create the preconditions for genocide. He charmed, bantered, and bribed his way through roadblocks to save lives a few at a time. The concept of R2P has come a long way toward acceptance since 2001 and parts of it have been adopted in various U.N. reports and resolutions. Note that the consensus of opinion, now some 10 years later, is that the U.S. should have intervened. They also believed, understandably, that it would harm U.S. credibility to name the crime and then do nothing to stop it.” A Defense Department memo states that U.S. officials were worried that a “genocide finding could commit [the U.S. government] to actually ‘do something. He first arrived in Rwanda on an information-gathering mission with little more than a map and an encyclopedia article on Rwanda. But the killers, unblinking, struck him down.” Power, The Problem from Hell, pg 334. Hotel Rwanda is a biographical portrait of Paul Rusesabugina, the Hutu manager of the hotel who has a Tutsi wife. The answer is clearly no. The visual portrayal of the killings is graphic but restrained enough for most audiences to be able to watch the film which they should. Historical class/caste divisions and grievances based on the Tutsi role as overlords of the Hutu; this was exacerbated and institutionalized by the “divide and rule” policy of the Belgian colonists; Poverty and overpopulation (only Bangladesh has a greater population density than Rwanda); contraception was effectively banned in Rwanda; Tightly organized and controlled communities; A subservient population used to following orders; A culture of impunity (a society without the rule of law) which tolerated powerful or aggressive people taking what they wanted without any consequences. To me this was now such a commonplace sight it did not penetrate my protective screen. 24. What Bill meant by his “role” was that by not forgiving his father he had kept the wound open. Rusesabagina Lecture, Los Angeles California, April 4, 2006. If they are still free, then what about me, where do I belong?” Sibomana, Hope for Rwanda, p. 105. 32. See free blank map of Rwanda and adjacent countries and CIA Factbook Map of Rwanda. There was an ongoing civil war and a possibility that international troops would get caught in the cross-fire. (At present the world is struggling with a genocide in Darfur.). The genocidaires have been treated well in the prison run by the International Criminal Tribunal. How do you face down a killer? What was the role of the civil war in setting the conditions in which the genocide could occur? What is it? There was little good intelligence from Rwanda. His focus should be on marrying Martine and raising his new son. Look for irony in the rap song the students are listening to on a boom box after the class. He hadn’t visited his family for decades. I hate you.” They are a chilling reminder of the role played by hate radio, RTLM in the genocide. “Any time you mentioned peacekeeping in Africa” said one U.S. official, ” the crucifixes and garlic would come up on every door.” Power, Bystanders to Genocide Atlantic Monthly, September 2001. Give some of the code words broadcast over the radio at the start of the genocide. It requires a ruthless government that can crush and silence opposition, rally an efficient killing force, identify the target group, manipulate the media, and parry any thrusts of intervention from the outside world. Tell children that each of these movies accurately shows what happened in Rwanda in 1994. There were a lot of them. In A Problem from Hell — America and the age of Genocide, Samantha Power describes Dallaire’s revelations and mental state in the aftermath of his deployment: Just as Gandhi, Mandela and Martin Luther King elevated the morality of the world community by their actions, the leaders in power during the Rwandan genocide allowed the level of international morality to deteriorate. Observers charge that he won through intimidation and by outlawing the opposition party. He ridicules Kagame’s claim that he received 95% of the vote in a free election and charges that Kagame is behaving like any other African despot. If you had been in the class, what would you have done? “Hotel Rwanda” also describes the difficult position of peacekeeping forces when they are not supported by the U.N. and the international community. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, c1999; When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda by Mahmood Mamdani, 2001 Princeton Universtiy Press, Princeton, N.J. I chose to view Sometimes in April because I already viewed Hotel Rwanda.Though Hotel Rwanda is a great film, its focus is too narrow with the horrifying events of the Rwandan genocide kept somewhat the background.Hotel Rwanda does not reveal the day to day struggle of the man on the street. More than 300 children younger than 18 years of age were accused of killing people in the genocide. He justified his conduct by saying “I do not have the power to change this situation.” Did he act correctly? The mountainous West of the country borders the Democratic Republic of the Congo, and parts of Uganda to the North and Burundi to the South. “Is it Tutsi and Hutu or Tutu and Hutsi?” questioned a member of Lt General Wesley Clarke’s staff after Habyarimana’s plane crashed. When the expatriates were being evacuated, he persuaded a BBC reporter to stay by allowing him to live in the U.N. compound, guaranteeing him protection, and promising him a story a day. …. (For a description of these events, see From Humanitarian Intervention to the Responsibility to Protect, a speech by Mr. Evans to the Symposium on Humanitarian Intervention, University of Wisconsin, Madison, March 31, 2006.) It also shows how he offers food to make people happy. Some Tutsis paid the Interahamwe to shoot them instead of hacking them to death. There are several. Ironically, Inyenzi was a term coined by the RPF (mainly Tutsi) forces to describe themselves: stealthy and impossible to eradicate. For example, Rwanda has no important natural resources. Remember the priest who cooperated with the Hutu officials and helped them cull the people seeking refuge in his church? However, there is no true opposition party. Dallaire said that he found it difficult to return to the details of the genocide: “I had the sense of the smell of the slaughter in my nose and I don’t know how it, appeared but there was all of a sudden this sudden rush to my brain and to my senses . It later turned out that all of Jean-Pierre’s information was accurate. Neighbor would be required to kill neighbor. Joyce Leader, deputy chief of the U.S. Mission in Kigali, recalls that early on the morning after President Habyarimana’s plane was shot down, “People were calling me and telling me who was getting killed. Some commentators doubt that there would have been a genocide if the Rwandan government had not felt so threatened by the Tutsi rebels returning from Uganda. These people were wearing military uniforms that had been handed out by the militia. Gacaca hearings were traditionally used to address relatively minor property disputes within villages. Following the practice of nations and most particularly what occurred in Kosovo, efforts have been made to replace the concept of sovereignty with the “responsibility to protect” (“R2P”). By August 1994, Dallaire had a death wish. In the movie, a genocidaire offered to let the hotel manager have a few Tutsis of his own in exchange for turning over the rest of his neighbors and friends. And around the world, there has been a spectacular increase in the number of civil conflicts resolved – as in Indonesia’s separatist Aceh province [in 2004] – not by force but by negotiation.” He gave primary credit to “the huge increase in international efforts to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts.” Mr. Evans noted that descriptions of the extensive international diplomatic efforts necessary for these successes are usually not reported on the evening news but they are nonetheless important. Is it just a whitewash, or is it an important venue for bringing justice to the genocidaires? Links to the Internet At one point, Clinton’s Secretary of State Warren Christopher, had to pull out a map of Africa to see where Rwanda was. Worksheet for Cinematic and Theatrical Elements and Their Effects. 35. I chose the HBO Film Sometimes in April. Should Mr. Rusesabagina have kept up his friendships with men in the Hutu Army or the militia? General Dallaire knew what Captain Diagne was doing, but took no steps to stop him. What role, if any, did the Arusha Peace Accords play in the genocide? Thread starter apologize; Start date Sep 26, 2016 Sep 26, 2016 (Several members of General Dallaire’s UNAMIR force were in fact killed by weapons aimed at opponents in the civil war.) (Dead U.S. soldiers had been dragged through the streets of Mogadishu.) In 1999, even though Russia’s veto prevented the U.N. Security Council from authorizing the use of force, the United States spearheaded a NATO intervention in Kosovo to prevent ethnic cleansing and genocide of the Muslim ethnic Albanian population. Available from Amazon.com. Clearly, both factors were operating and the girls were heroes. They determined that, “The hypothetical force described by General Dallaire–at least 5,000 strong, depending on the method of employment, and armed with the equipment and capabilities to employ and sustain a brigade in combat–could have made a significant difference in Rwanda in 1994…. Everyone has a right to justice and providing justice is an important function. 124 & 125. We did not wake up one morning to hear it pouring out of the radio at full strength. Radio announcers exhorted the Hutu to kill and broadcast the names and whereabouts of top Hutu moderates and Tutsis. They may be the only ones. It was a major factor. “Mille Collines” means “a thousand hills” in French. Augustin is a Hutu who had married a Tutsi. “American officials, for a variety of reasons, shunned the use of what became known as ‘the g-word.’ They felt that using it would have obliged the United States to act, under the terms of the 1948 Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. There was always a lot of blood. 3. People in Uganda who remember the terrible regimes of Idi Amin and Milton Obote are grateful for the less than democratic but stable government of Musaveni. You knew you had to change your address at once.” Power, A Problem from Hell p. 7. The perpetrators were the Hutu-dominated army, the Interahamwe militia, and the neighbors and friends of the victims. Individuals like Phillipe Gaillard of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) and the U.N. Force Commandeer commander LT General Roméo Dallaire went to heroic lengths to save Rwandans. See Assignments, Projects, and Activities for Use With Any Film that is a Work of Fiction. An example is the successful NATO intervention in Kosovo spearheaded by the U.S. President Clinton pushed the Kosovo intervention through despite doubts from many in the U.S. military that it could be successfully accomplished. V neprospech tohoto lacine vypadajiciho, necitlive a nechytlave natoceneho televizniho dramatu o tragickych udalostech roku 1994 v Rwande mluvi mnou drive videny a od prvniho do posledniho zaberu adorovany Hotel Rwanda. Learn more about Mailchimp's privacy practices here. 9. Parents would be required to kill their own children. The necessity of Justice: Justice is a basic human right. Both these films deal with the 1994 genocide in Rwanda and are similar in content, often overlapping in events of 1994 and the way they are portrayed visually. The extremist Hutu paper Kangura (“Wake up!) Officers from several other countries attached to the U.N. mission also acted heroically. In “Sometimes in April” when Augustin’s friend was killed at the checkpoint, did Augustin act in a cowardly manner by not helping his friend? 1. How does a society move forward from a genocide? The UN passed a resolution creating the UN Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) under a Chapter VI mandate to assist in implementing the Arusha Accords. Immediately after the movie, ask the Quick Discussion Question for that film. For example, the U.S. was to provide the armored personnel carriers for the troops but the Army imposed so many bureaucratic delays that APCs didn’t reach Rwanda before the end of the genocide. His book Shake Hands with the Devil won the prestigious Canadian Governor General’s Literary Award in 2004 and was a best seller in Canada for a short time. Sensitive children might be disturbed by either of these movies. The Rwandan genocide was person to person. Why did they do this? Sometimes in April is broader in scope since it also features the political discussions in Washington DC as well as some of its action taking place in 2004.Sometime in AprilWriter-director, Raoul Peck, was asked by Home Box Office, on the strength of his films on Lumumba, to make a film about the 1994 Rwandan genocide when militant Hutus massacred almost a million Tutsis and 30% of the third tribe, the Batwa (Twa). But of course bearing part of the blame for problems in a society is no justification for genocide. They died in a position of total vulnerability, flat on their backs with their legs bent and knees wide apart. Today I am convinced that the only thing that saved those 1,268 people in my hotel was words. Human Rights Watch. Once there, militia members who feared retaliation from her brother offered her the chance to leave. Thus, national sovereignty becomes an outmoded concept. The books and citations referred to in the text, in the Bridges to Reading section, and in Links to the Internet Section. 4. The U.S. was the undisputed leader of the international community in 1994 and had a responsibility to come to the assistance of the helpless Tutsis of Rwanda. xiv – xvi. Indeed some killers committed suicide after they had killed…. Building primarily on the actions of the international community in Kosovo the R2P was first enunciated in 2001 by the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. It’s easy for those of us who live safe and secure lives to judge those who participated in the genocide of 1994. Dallaire, Shake Hands with the Devil, p. 332. In April the Belgian UNAMIR contingent was ordered out of the country by Belgium’s civilian leaders. The Hutu teacher (Idris Elba) remembers his military career, his Tutsi wife (Caroline Karemera), his children, his radio personality brother who had embraced and fomented the Hutu ascendancy. Hotel Rwanda focuses on the heroism of one man, and while his heroism is important, the story of the Rwandan genocide is about some 927,000 people being murdered by their countrymen, friends, and neighbors. This organization works to prevent international conflict. The Guilt of the Press and the Intelligentsia: André Sibomana pointed out that “Intellectuals bear an overwhelming share of responsibility. Please support our journalism by donating to ICN today. I had closure at the end, but I was still confused a little bit about how she ended up where she was. In addition, the film describes the situation of three fictional survivors. Other examples cited by Mr. Gareth include: the successful presidential election in Liberia in 2005 (a country that in the decade before 2005 suffered a devastating civil war that was rife with human rights abuses), diplomatic efforts that prevented a new civil war from erupting in Somalia, and the work of peacekeepers in Sierra Leone. Would you do it differently now? A word created in 1944 by Dr. Raphael Lemkin. Then an arm would be severed and the victim left for a while. A coalition government was announced in 1993 after negotiations in Arusha, Tanzania. Tell children that each of these movies accurately shows what happened in Rwanda in 1994. xv, 2005. The genocide in Rwanda cost Roméo Dallaire a great deal. Heroic deeds are seldom totally altruistic. Just taking the film seriously and discussing it a little is the key. Gatwa drank all of his. … just ordinary words directed against the darkness…. While the U.N.’s orders to Dallaire were probably ill-conceived and contributed to the deaths of many people, the problems caused by military officers making policy decisions is so great that the principle of civilian control is essential to democracy. Stood around while they were doing their patriotic duty and protecting themselves by their. 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